Australian Bureau of StatisticsWith a few exceptions, the data currently collected that are relevant to understanding the linkage between fatigue and crash frequency are observational nonexperimental. A good example of how causality can be established primarily through observational studies is the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Instrumental Variables Another common technique for use with observational data is instrumental variables. It is difficult to separate the effect of the compensation approach from these other differences among carriers. There are four types of hypothesis scientists can use in their experimental designs: null, directional, nondirectional and causal hypotheses.
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